Copaceni beds, Romania

The Copăceni fossil site, located in southern Romania near the Argeș River, offers a window into the early Pleistocene (around 2 million years ago) environment of the region.

Type of Fossils:

  • Primarily freshwater fish fossils, including diverse species like carp, pike, perch, and salmon.
  • Other findings include amphibian and lizard remains, though not as abundant as the fish fossils.


  • Provides valuable information about the aquatic life during the early Pleistocene in Romania.
  • Helps understand the paleoenvironment of the region, suggesting the presence of a large, flowing river and possibly a connection to a brackish water body like an ancient lake or sea.
  • The composition of the fish fauna shows similarities with other early Pleistocene assemblages from surrounding areas like Ukraine, Moldova, and Turkey, hinting at connections and dispersal patterns across the region.

A list of published papers documenting the site:

  • First find of elephantid remains from the Pleistocene of Copaceni (Ilfov County, Romania)

  • Early Pleistocene amphibians and squamates from Copăceni (Dacian Basin, southern Romania)

  • O noua asociatie de mamifere de varsta Pleistocen inferior de pe Valea Argesului Inferior (Copaceni, judetul Ilfov)

  • Early Pleistocene freshwater fishes of Copăceni (Dacian Basin, southern Romania)

  • Early Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna of Copăceni (Dacian Basin, southern Romania) – preliminary data